As their name suggest, temperature controllers are instruments used for measuring and maintaining temperature levels and are widely used for different household and industrial purposes. Thermo regulators are required and useful when an object need to be cooled, heated or both, or just to be kept at a specific temperature value in any environment conditions. Also, they are used to automate the manufacturing processes, to maintain and monitor the temperature at accurate levels for solids, liquids, gases, etc.
Their working principle is based on comparing the temperature measured by the thermo-sensor (typically a thermocouple or RTD type Pt100) with the desired value set by the user or a setpoint. If there is a difference between the two values, the thermocontroller activates a circuit on its output/outputs and trigger an additional device/devices.
The basic principle for differentiation of automatic regulators is the called Law of regulation. The main and most frequently used in practice are four. Thermal regulators with two positions law of regulation : also known as ON/OFF. This is the simplest, but also the least precised way to measure and control the temperature. Three position controllers: usually they trigger two relay outputs which manage more than one device or enforce the same device to work in different modes. Another types are thermostats with proportional adjustment or (P Law ): this law allows regulation with significantly higher precision, because with appropriate adjustment of the device can be achieved a smooth approach of the regulated variable to the set one, while preventing its excess . Thermostats with proportional - integral - differential law of regulation (PID / PID Act) : by this way of management can be achieved optimum precision and accuracy.
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